Assignment 2 – World University Rankings

Within a week of submitting the first draft of assignment 1, we were given the question for assignment 2. For assignment 2, we had to use world university ranking data available on QS World University Rankings  to create a useful infographic and data visualization. Our infographic and visualization had to tie into a common theme. It was recommended that we think of a suitable question related to university rankings and try to answer that question using the infographic and visualization.

As in the case of assignment 1, the first challenge I faced was deciding what data to use from QS world university rankings. I also had to decide what theme I wanted focus on and what question I was trying to answer with my work.  Deciding the theme and question was extremely hard as there were so many avenues I could explore. I could explore rankings country-wise or region-wise. Alternatively, I could consider a more ‘causal’ approach by focusing on what has caused the rankings of universities to be where they are. A third approach would be to dig deeper into a particular parameter such as academic reputation, employer reputation, cost of living, student life etc. Ultimately, I decided to focus on the top universities in a particular region or country. This would narrow down my data tremendously. Moreover, I could explore various parameters of the top universities in depth. Now that I had decided to focus on a region or country, I was confused about which region or country to pick. My primary contenders were Asia and the US. Asian schools have been climbing in the rankings and might show some interesting trends over the years. However, top US universities are ranked very high worldwide and might be more popular amongst prospective students.  After weighing the pros and cons of both my options, I decided to concentrate on the top 10 US universities. Top US universities are very popular choices for students from all around the world because of their high international intake. Moreover, they offer very interesting courses and opportunities. I thought that my infographic could educate the reader about the top 10 US universities and give the reader some interesting facts and figures which might be useful to him / her while picking his / her university.

Now that I had decided what data and theme I would be focusing on, I started thinking of some potential ideas for my infographic. My simplest idea was to draw a map with the locations of the top 10 US universities indicated on the map. I thought it would be an interesting statistic to include the percentage of top schools on the east coast and west coast. I also wanted to compare parameters such as tuition fees, academic repute and employer repute of the top schools. However, due to lack of time, I was unable to include all the elements I wanted in my first draft. Hence, my first draft was incomplete and looked like this:

A2 draft_Dipika

As the draft was incomplete, I was unable to get a lot of concrete feedback for it. In general, people felt that the data I had represented so far was a bit disconnected and none of it was really very useful to prospective students. I had to find a better way to convey the information I was interested in sharing.

To me, thinking of a good design that is both aesthetically appealing and in accordance with design principles is the most challenging task. I was extremely confused about how to represent all the data I had in a clean and understandable way on the infographic. I looked for inspiration online and came across this infographic:

sample

The inforgraphic and related article can be found at China Knowledge Revolution

I was impressed by the following elements of this infographic:

  1. A clear heading to indicate its purpose.
  2. Use of a map to depict locations of universities.
  3. Use of different kind of charts such as 3D line chart and progress bars to indicate various statistics.

Overall, all the elements of the infographic tied into a common theme and told a coherent story. In a similar manner, I wanted my infographic to very clearly depict the central theme I had chosen. I thought of all the information I wanted to convey and what would be the best way to convey it. I thought of all the elements I needed in my infographic and came up with the following list:

  1. Location of top 10 universities in US – best way to depict this is a map with the universities marked out.
  2. Ranking of the university in US.
  3. World ranking of the university.
  4. Top subjects of study in each university.
  5. Acceptance rate in each university – good way to depict this is a status bar with the percentage acceptance rate.accept
  6. Comparison of tuition fees of top 10 US universities – this could be done using a horizontal / vertical bar graph.
  7. Comparison of academic reputation of top 10 US universities – this could be done using a horizontal / vertical bar graph.
  8. Comparison of employer reputation of top 10 US universities – this could be done using a horizontal / vertical bar graph.

As with assignment 1, I decided to use the online tool Piktochart to put the various elements of the infographic together. My completed infographic for assignment 2 looked like this:

A2_Dipika Suresh

I was pleased with my effort and felt that my infographic was very clear in its central theme. It provided a good insight into the top 10 US universities and helped answer questions students may have regarding tuition fees, acceptance, top subjects or academic repute.

The next step was to create a data visualization again surrounding my central theme of top 10 US universities. As per its wiki definition, data visualization is “information that has been abstracted in some schematic form, including attributes or variables for the units of information“. I decided to focus my visualization on how the world rankings of the top 10 US universities had changed over the past 10 years. This dataset included numerous data points and could be well represented using a line graph. I collected the rankings of the top 10 US universities over 10 years (from 2004 to 2014) on the QS world rankings website. I put all my data into an excel sheet and decided to use Tableau public to plot my graph. Tableau lets you import data from excel sheets while plotting. I used this feature to import the ranking data I had saved on excel into Tableau and was easily able to plot line graphs for each university. My completed visualization looked like this:

A2_Viz_Dipika Suresh

My primary takeaways from assignment 2 are:

  1. Use of tools like Illustrator, Piktochart and Tableau.
  2. Understanding differences between a visualization and inforgraphic.
  3. A better understanding on how to design a good quality infographic.

I enjoyed the process of creating the infographic and visualization for assignment 2. I think I have been able to improve my designing skills and I hope they will continue to improve over the course of this module.

Assignment 1 – Milestones Project

The first assignment for my NM3229 data visualization course was to create a useful infographic based on data available in the Milestones Project.  The Milestones Project charts the progress of data visualization over several centuries. It focuses primarily on inventions in cartography, statistics, graphics and technology. It provides detailed information about each invention such as the name of the invention, inventor name, location of invention and year of invention. In a nutshell, the Milestones Project charts the entire history of data visualization all the way from BC times to the 21st century.

The Milestones Project is filled with a lot of data and the first challenge I faced was to decide on which data to focus on in my infographic. I wanted to narrow down to a few significant pieces of data. I ultimately decided to focus on inventions in data visualization technology as technological inventions seemed the most interesting to me. I also narrowed down my focus to inventions in data visualization technology over 4 centuries (1600s to 1900s).

My first idea for the infographic was to create the effect of a road with numerous ‘milestones’ on the road to indicate inventions. Similar to the picture below, I wanted to draw a long road with milestones on the road, each  milestone having information related to an invention such as the name, year of invention and inventor name.

milestone

I started using Adobe Illustrator to create my infographic. I have never used Adobe Illustrator before and it was pretty difficult getting used to the software. I watched a few online tutorials to build my Illustrator skills  ( the tutorials I used are available here – Illustrator Tutorials). Having established some basic foundation in Illustrator, I began drawing my infographic. However, I realized that my lack of Illustrator skills and prior design experience were a major roadblock to drawing my infographic. I was unable to convert my initial idea into a concise and clear infographic using Illustrator. I hence decided to change my initial idea. Instead of creating a long winding road with milestones along the way, I decided to create crossroads like those depicted in the image below:

crossroad

The crossroads divide the canvas into 4 sections. I thought I could use each section to represent a particular century. Thus, my revised design consisted of a set of crossroads dividing the canvas into 4 sections. Each section focused on a particular century (1600s to 1900s). I wanted to depict the inventions of a century in a very clear manner, including information such as the name , year and location of invention. I was able to achieve using circular markers like the image below:

marker

This circular marker used to represent an invention has the name, year & location of invention

Hence, my first draft for the infographic consisted of crossroads dividing the canvas into 4 sections, each section focused on a century. Inventions in a century were depicted using circular markers (like the one above) and had the name, location and year of invention. I had a key to clarify which location mapped to which colour. My first draft looked like this:

a1 draft

The circular markers (in a particular section) are arranged in chronological order

I received a lot of mixed feedback regarding my first draft for assignment 1.

Here are some of the positives comments I received for my draft:

  1. Unique idea and design.
  2. Large amount of information conveyed in infographic.
  3. Suitable data-ink ratio (as per Tufte’s principles).

The primary criticism I received for my draft is as follows:

  1. Infographic is not very intuitive and easy to understand.
  2. The order of markers in a section can be misleading.
  3. The numerous colours used to depict location are distracting.
  4. The use of crossroads does not very clearly depict the idea of milestones along a road.
  5. No graphs / statistics used to depict trends.

After going through all the feedback received from Ms Jing, classmates and friends, I decided that the concept of using crossroads and milestones along a road was not a very easy one to grasp and execute. It would make more sense for me to choose a more simplistic and intuitive design to improve readability of my infographic. Hence, I decided to completely change my design for the final submission of my infographic.

I decided to depict the same data that I had depicted in draft 1 – technology inventions in data visualization from 1600s to 1900s. I liked the idea of giving each century its own section in the infographic. So I decided to divide my infographic into 4 rows, where each row represented a century. I wanted to depict an invention in a better way (instead of using circular markers like my draft 1).  So I decided to include a small picture of the invention along with its name, year of invention and inventor name. I depicted the location of invention using a tiny flag. Hence, my inventions looked something like this:

invent

5 pieces of information regarding an invention are depicted

Apart from depicting notable inventions in a particular century, I wanted to depict some statistic or trend in my infographic. The 2 trends I decided to depict were:

  1. Increase in number of inventions over 4 centuries.
  2. Country-wise contributions to inventions.

I depicted the first piece of information using a line chart as line charts are a good way to depict a change in value over time. I observed that the number of inventions had risen from just 5 in the 1600s to 15 in the 1900s.

I depicted the country-wise contribution to inventions using a pie chart. A pie chart very clearly depicts the percentage contribution of various countries to technological inventions. I observed that US was the primary contributor to inventions.

I now had all the elements I needed for my final infographic and what remained was putting everything together.Instead of using Illustrator to put all the elements together, I decided to use an online tool called PiktoChart, recommended to me by one of my classmates. Piktochart helps to easily format and put together various elements of the infographic.

After many days of hard work, I was finally done with my infographic. It looked like this:

final a1

I had separate sections for centuries, notable inventions in a century, important information related to an invention and relevant trends and statistics. I felt like I had come a long way from when I first started working on assignment 1.

My primary takeaways from this assignment are:

  1. I have gained some knowledge on designing infographics.
  2. I have learnt how to use design tools such as Illustrator and Piktochart.

I am pretty satisfied with my final infographic and hopefully I will receive positive feedback for it!